Consistent with the literature (McCrae et al., 2000; Costa et al., 2001; Chapman et al., 2007), women scored higher on the NEO-FFI domains of Neuroticism and Agreeableness. 373, p = 1.2 ? 10 -7 ).
They also scored higher on the Prosocial/Empathic scale of the FTI than the men (r = 0
This scale divergence is interesting since Agreeableness is essentially the prosocial domain of the NEO. Though Agreeableness is not associated with empathy in the NEO, it does measure compliance, trust, modesty, tolerance and tender-mindedness (Costa and McCrae, 1992). In fact, in a recent study of personality and brain activity during emotional attribution decisions, participants with higher Agreeableness scores also showed greater right temporoparietal junction activity, a brain region associated with perspective-taking and Theory of Mind (Haas et al., 2015), qualities thought to contribute to the empathy. However, since empathy was not formerly associated with Agreeableness, the HEXACO personality model included a facet called Emotionality to specifically address empathy, attachment, and harm-avoidance (Ashton and Lee, 2007). Further, when the FTI was administered as part of two fMRI studies (Brown et al., 2013), participants with higher scores on the Prosocial/Empathic scale showed greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula and fusiform gyrus, regions associated with estrogen binding and empathic behavior, suggesting that the Prosocial/Empathic scale does measure qualities of the domain of Agreeableness associated with the NEO and the empathy/attachment measure of Emotionality in the HEXACO.
Last, the Prosocial/Empathetic scale of the FTI was positively correlated with the NEO-FFI scale of Openness to Experience (r = 0.284, p = 0.0001) and negatively correlated with the NEO-FFI scale for Conscientiousness (r = -0.242, p = 0.0008).
The FTI was not developed to replace other measures of personality. It does not measure neuroticism or extraversion, for example. But based on the results of our convergent and discriminant analyses, the modest length of the FTI and its additional constructs of empathy, tough-mindedness and degree to which one regards sex as essential to a partnership, the FTI may be a useful complement to the NEO-FFI or other Five Factor Models of personality.
In contrast to our prediction that Agreeableness and the Prosocial/Empathic scale of the FTI would be positively correlated, there was not a significant relationship
The novel value of the 56-item FTI within a business or organizational context may be to highlight individual differences in style of communication, style of leadership, preference for rules and schedules, attitude toward risk, tendency to trust, sensitivity to rank, degree of emotional containment, tendency toward traditionalism, degree of linguistic and/or mathematical creativity, and proficiency at executive social skills. The potential value of the FTI in a personal context may be to lend additional insight into attitudes of friends, partners, and kin regarding their political and religious presuppositions, their educational aspirations, and their views regarding the importance of sex to a relationship (an important component of partnership viability) and partner–partner and parent–child compatibility. The potential value of the FTI to the science of personality is that it is derived directly from brain architecture and physiology, providing an additional way to look at the core structure of temperament. Last, this additional approach ent explanations and uses. For example, with the rationale that dopamine and its receptors strongly influence behavior, some of the domains from linguistically derived questionnaires like the BFI that uses Extraversion and Openness to Experience might be collapsed into one domain and thus simplified. Thus, physiology and behavior based on hormonal and neurotransmitter influences may be able to cover a broader spectrum than several other constructs. In short, the FTI may provide a parsimonious construct.